With the Windows 8.1 update in addition to a whole heap of OS changes and the reappearance of the start button (well kind of) we get the latest version of Internet Explorer – Internet Explorer 11!
Internet Explorer 11 of course contains improved support for new standards and API’s and it’s great to see Microsoft really stepped up their release cadence with IE 10 released only a year ago – can you believe there was about 3 years between IE 8 & 9 being released and 5 whole years between IE 5 & 6!
IE11 contains a heap of new features but for those of you with a short attention span my top 5 are:
- A long overdue refresh of the F12 developer tools bringing IE11’s dev tooling into line with other browsers and with the addition of a few treats not found elsewhere
- Support for a number of new standards & APIs – e.g. dataset, mutation observers
- WebGL meaning from now on every major browser supports a way to render 3d content!
- Tab, history & setting synchronization
- Page asset/network prioritization changes
IE 11 supported platforms
IE11 is of course supported on Windows 8 as part of the Windows 8.1 update but if you are running Windows 7 sp1 (and who can blame you as Win 8 has some er irritating quirks) you will still be able to use IE11 (although it’s not yet released at the time of writing so you er can’t quite yet).
It’s also worth noting there are some features that are not supported in Windows 7 due to OS limitations around graphics, security & device orientation. For a full list please refer to: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-US/library/ie/dn394063(v=vs.85)#unsupported_features
IE 11 will also be supported on Windows Server 2008 R2 Sp1 & will come with Windows Server 2012 R2.
Completely overhauled F12 developer tools
The new F12 developer tools deserve an entire blog post(s) of their own so I will just summarize some of the main changes (you can go to http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ie/bg182326(v=vs.85).aspx to read in more detail about these):
- New improved cleaner, more intuitive interface
- Ability to right click to inspect an element
- Intellisense auto completion for html, css & js
- DOM drag & drop
- No need to refresh page to enable debugging
- Scrollbar shows breakpoints in code
- See event handlers applied to node (and ill add that I found this better referenced the code than Chromes implementation)
- Ability to move execution point backwards
- Break on creation of new web worker
- Performance profiling
- Screen (size & resolution) & GPS emulation (for geolocation testing)
- Ability to identify detached DOM nodes that can cause memory headaches
The below screenshot shows the new tools so you can see how different they are:
As long as you are using a Microsoft account (e.g. not just a local Windows account) then IE 11 will sync your browser history, typed URLs, favourites, settings and credentials using Skydrive behind the scenes. The settings for this feature are a little hidden away under PC Settings, Skydrive, sync settings and enables fine tuning of just what’s synced.
Whilst we are discussing tabs IE 11 allows you to open unlimited numbers of tabs (you were limited to 10 in IE10) so you can have all your cat pictures open at once.
Standards & compatibility related changes
When IE 8 was released Microsoft introduced the concept of document modes to facilitate the rendering of older web pages. It is possible using a special http header or meta tag to tell IE to render a page using a particular document mode version. This feature would sometimes be useful when working with sites or CMS systems where you had little control over the html that was rendered and needed to ensure it worked with a particular browser version.
From IE 11 to help move things forward & provide the best user experience possible document mode should be considered deprecated (although will still currently work as of IE11). In IE11 edge mode is the preferred mode to render documents and contains the support for the standards. It’s very easy to tell IE11 that you want your page to be rendered using this mode simply add the html 5 doctype,
In the olden days some sites would use API’s such as navigator.appName & navigator.product to detect whether IE was accessing a page and serve a more basic version of a site (as older versions of IE had poorer standards support). The problem with this is that later versions of IE probably do support these features which can result in a poor experience for users. IE 11 will now return “Netscape” when navigator.appName is called and “Gecko” for navigator.product. This also reflects whats specified in the HTML5 standard and what other browsers do so don’t think this is some Microsoft related hackary!
IE 11 removes support for a number of legacy api’s that you really shouldn’t be using anyway such as attachEvent, execScript & the most evil document.all. For a full list please refer to: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ie/bg182625(v=vs.85).aspx
Change to user agent string
On Windows 8.1 IE 11 will identify itself as:
Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 6.3; Trident/7.0; rv:11.0) like Gecko
Microsoft say they changed the user agent string to reduce the possibility of IE being incorrectly identified as an earlier version e.g. IE 10 identified itself as:
Mozilla/5.0 (compatible; MSIE 10.0; Windows NT 6.1; Trident/6.0)
So I guess “compatible” & “MSIE” potentially caused some issues. MS say that if for some strange reason you want to detect just IE 11 (and you probably don’t really want to do this as you should be using feature detection) then you can check for the presence of the string “Trident” (IE’s layout engine) and presumably should also use the version number once when IE12 is released.
API & JS Feature Support
IE now supports the following features & APIs:
- Dataset for reading custom data attributes from an element
- Mutation observers (a way of monitoring DOM changes e.g. changes to values or the addition & removal of nodes)
- let (blockscoped variable)
- const (block scoped constant variable)
- Set’s (Set’s ensure uniqueness of key, value pairs in a collection)
- Maps (work a bit like a C# dictionary)
- WeakMap – like a Map object but the key must be an object. If the key object is destroyed the weak map removes the key/value pair automatically
- Internationalization API (date & number formatting stuff)
- __proto__ property
- Better canvas support
- Fullscreen API
- Screen Orientation API
- Device orientation events
- Web Cryptography API
- Clipboard support for images pasted into contenteditable regions
- Input Method Editor (IME) accessibility support – I’m not too clear what this is but apparently as an example enables you to “avoid user interface collisions” http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ie/dn385696
- Accessibility support for clear button in text input
- Command identifiers – allow control over undo stack for editing
Graphical & Layout related changes
IE 11 has the following graphical & layout related changes:
- WebGL (yay! – it’s worth noting that Microsoft classify IE11’s WebGL implementation as an “early preview” so not all the APIs are fully supported yet. There is full a list of what’s working at: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ie/bg182648(v=vs.85).aspx)
- New devicePixelRatio property (devicePixelRatio is the ratio between device pixels & dpi adjusted css pixels)
- Better support for scaling & zooming
- Support for different DPI’s on different monitors (previously one DPI was supported)
- Updated flexbox support
- CSS3 Border-images
- Support for SVG pointer events
- Fix for a number of bugs in East Asian & bi directional text
Other performance enhancements in IE 11 include:
- Caching of pages already loaded as long as they meet certain conditions (e.g. must be served over http, contain no websocket usage or pending IndexDb transactions, ActiveX controls etc)
- Page assets prioritized (layout stuff first all the way to audio, video & ActiveX components)
- Prioritization by context (e.g. pages in background tabs have lower preference than one in the foreground)
- Support for lazyload attribute to delay individual resources e.g. <img src=”unimportant.png” lazyload=”1” /> (0 indicates should be loaded with default priority)
- Preload attribute support (tells the browser to render a page in the background )
- Prefetch support (tell the browser to download something into the cache – can do up to 10 times per page)
- Dns-prefetch – tells the browser to resolve a dns query in the background
It’s worth noting that using prerendered & prefetch could have some side effects with scripts & animations already having been run on page – you have been warned!
Microsoft quote that an independent study by NSS lab also showed that IE11 blocked 99.96% of malware based on a 754 examples of malicious software which was better than other browsers that were tested which is awesome news. In previous NSS tests other browsers performed better in some other areas e.g. preventing phishing attacks (http://www.infosecurity-magazine.com/view/33645/there-is-no-single-most-secure-browser/) so read into this you will.
It’s quite clear however that Microsoft take security very seriously and IE 11 offers further features to increase protection:
- In IE11 on Windows 8 Enhanced protection mode (EPM) & App container are turned on by default. This prevents unauthorized reading/writing to OS and was previously off by default
- The ability to create Do Not Track (DNT) exceptions (DNT is a header to indicate that a site shouldn’t track a user)
- Support for a number of new group policy settings e.g. control of page prediction, ms personalization of search results, phone number, SPDY/3 network protocol
- Ability to block all 3rd party cookies (found under settings, privacy, cookies)
Windows 8 app related changes
I don’t have a Microsoft tablet related device so I can’t test some of these but apparently IE 11 supports:
- Phone number detection (not desktop mode)
- Ability to show 2 windows side by side
- Browser will scale to fix content
- Access to downloaded file list
- Tab position improved
- Hover states mapped to tap & hold
- Drag & drop via touch
- Live tiles with Pinned sites
- Backswipe with smarter caching
- Gyroscope input
Some other changes didn’t really fit in other sections but deserve a mention:
- Mpeg dash support (high quality streaming of media content over http)
- Better video captioning support for HTML 5 videos – support for dynamic TextTrack (add captions to HTML5 videos using JS,
- SDP (simple delivery profile) captioning support
- Ability to control whether video data fetched using XHR is written to disk or not
- SPDY/3 support (a protocol that modifies the way HTTP is sent to be more efficient)
- IE 11 will encode all url’s using UTF-8
- IE 11 includes Adobe Flash out the box!
Of course every new release of software brings with it potential issues and IE is no exception. There has already been an issue with the rendering of Google’s search results that is now fixed but I think the following could potentially cause some headaches:
- Sites relying on user agent string detection (which is naughty anyway) may not function as expected
- Dropping support for API’s such as document.all. See http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ie/bg182625(v=vs.85).aspx#legacyAPIs
- IE will no longer use managed browser hosting controls like in .net 1.1 & 2 but can be enabled with registry key http://technet.microsoft.com/library/dn268945.aspx
- Certain versions of ASP.net may not recognise IE11 unless browser capability file is updated see http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ie/hh869299(v=vs.85).aspx
- EPM security enhancements could cause issues for some browser extensions
I really feel this release of Internet Explorer competes with offerings from competitors and will win some developers back with it’s much improved F12 developer tools. It’s also great to see support for the newer web technologies such as WebGL and Microsoft contributing to the community by proposing new standards such as IME.
It is frustrating to see that IE is often one step behind competitors offerings due to its slower release cycle. If anything I think this is due to Internet Explorer’s tight integration with Windows which only seems to be increasing with Windows 8 apps relying on IE components 😦
I really don’t think it a good idea that a browser is tied to an operating system so closely (although this has its advantages as well) and it will be interesting to see the direction the Internet Explorer team take with this in the future. I found Aaron Powell’s suggestion that Microsoft fork IE to test new features that get fed back into the main Internet Explorer an interesting read.
My only real gripe with IE now is that I would really like to see a good way to extend the browser – this is currently far too hard & badly documented.
But in conclusion IE 11 is a great release and a massive improvement on IE 10 with its improved development tooling.
IE 11 guide for developers http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ie/bg182636(v=vs.85).aspx
IE Blog http://blogs.msdn.com/b/ie/
Overview of IE 11 http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/ie/dn269977.aspx
IE test drive site http://ie.microsoft.com/testdrive/